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Предметы
Пользователи из разных городов пишут нам, что их иногда смущает содержание видеоуроков и произношение преподавателей.

Наша основная задача - помочь ученику быть успешным в школе.

С помощью наших видеоуроков по английскому языку вы сможете подготовиться к завтрашнему уроку в средней (неспециализированной) школе. Чтобы освоить язык для свободного применения в повседневной жизни, рекомендуем обратиться к сайтам Lingualeo.com, Engvid.com, Busuu.com.

Мы знаем, что произношение наших преподавателей часто отличается от произношения носителей языка.

В нашу задачу не входит поставить идеальное английское произношение. К тому же произношение неодинаково, даже у жителей различных районов Великобритании (произношение в Шотландии отличается от произношения в Уэльсе), что уж говорить об Австралии и Индии. Мы уверены, что, если вы научитесь произносить звуки так, как это делают наши учителя, это вам поможет и в школе, и в жизни.

Reporting verbs. Reporting a conversation. Reported statement

Вы часто обсуждаете со своими друзьями то, что кто-то сказал? Вы пересказываете родителям, что сказал вам учитель? В таком случае вы используете косвенную речь – это значит, что вы пересказываете кому-то разговор, который состоялся. На этом уроке вы вспомните, как правильно переводить предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, и познакомитесь с глаголами, которые помогают вам передавать чьи-то слова наиболее достоверно, такие глаголы называются глаголами сообщения.

Введение

Косвенная речь может быть представлена косвенными утверждениями, вопросами, приказами и просьбами.

Reported speech can be given in reported statements, reported questions, orders and requests.

На этом уроке вы познакомитесь с косвенными утверждениями. Reported statements.

 

Повтор правила согласования времен и изменение наречий времени

Если вы пересказываете чьи-то слова, обратите внимание на три пункта, которые, вероятнее всего, вам придется изменить:

Эти изменения происходят в соответствии с правилом согласования времен (Sequence of Tenses Rule) и логикой повествования.

  • verb tense ( backshift) (глагольная форма)
  • adverbs of time and place/demonstrative pronouns (наречия времени и места/указательные местоимения)
  • pronouns (местоимения)

David said, “I saw her yesterday.” – David said he had seen her the day before.

They said, “We are not eating now.” – They said they were eating then.

Change in tenses (backshift)

Direct speech

Reported speech

Present Simple
My friend said, “I want to go to England.”

Past Simple
My friend said that he wanted to go to England.

Present Continuous
He said, “She is playing tennis.”

PastContinuous
He said that she was playing tennis.

Present Perfect
He said, “You haven't told us the truth.”

Past Perfect
He said that she hadn't told them the truth.

Present Perfect Continuous
She said, “I have been working all morning.”

Past Perfect Continuous
She said that she had been working all morning.

Past Simple
She said, “Dan left for Moscow yesterday.”

Past Perfect
He said that Dan had left for Moscow the day before.

Past Continuous
He said, “She was walking alone.”

Past perfect Continuous
He said that she was walking alone.

Past Perfect
He said, “She had painted the house.”

Past Perfect
He said that she had painted the house.

Future Simple (will)
He said, “It will snow.”

Future-in-the-Past (would)
He said that it would snow.

Can

She said, “I can read English books without a dictionary.”

Could

She said she could read English books without a dictionary.”

Change in adverbs of place and time and demonstrative pronouns.

Direct speech

Reported speech

today

(on) that day

this morning/ afternoon/tonight

that morning/ afternoon/ that night

now

then

tomorrow

the following day/ the next day

next week/ month

the following week/ month

in a few days

a few days later

yesterday

the day before

last week/ month/year

the week/ month/year before

5 minutes/three days / a week ago

5 minutes/ three days / a week before

here

there

this

that

these

those

 

Say/tell

Хорошо, что в английском языке много глаголов, которые помогают передавать чьи-то слова, иначе речь звучала бы скучно: Она сказала…, он сказал….(She/he/they SAID ...)

Такие глаголы сообщения помогают точнее выразить, что человек чувствует, его точку зрения или что думает говорящий o чьих-то словах.

Чтобы правильно передать чью-то речь, необходимо использовать глагол сообщения с правильным значением.

Самые распространенные глаголы сообщения – say и tell. У них одинаковое значение – говорить; однако используем мы их по-разному.

Say

Tell

we say something

She said that she was tired.

BUT we tell someone something

She told him that she was tired.

we sometimes use say to someone

She said (to him) that she was tired.

 

 

Упражнение

Вставьте said или told в предложения.

Put said /told in the sentence.

  1. She _____ me (that) she loved John.
  2. They ______ (that) they were happy.
  3. He ________ everybody (that) he had to leave.
  4. Anne _______me (that) her brother was buying a car.
  5. Alice ______ to Mike (that) he was wearing a nice suit.
  6. She ______ (that) it was raining.
  7. Lisa _____ me (that) she would call at 2p.m.

Правильные ответы:

  1. She told me (that) she loved John.
  2. They said (that) they were happy.
  3. He told everybody (that) he had to leave.
  4. Anne told me (that) her brother was buying a car.
  5. Alice said to Mike (that) he was wearing a nice suit.
  6. She said (that) it was raining.
  7. Lisa told me (that) she would call at 2 p.m.

 

Упражнение

Перепишите предложения в косвенной речи.

  1. Dave said, “I was playing tennis from 3 to 5 p.m. yesterday.”
  2. He told us, “My mother has called me today."
  3. She said, “Ken doesn’t want to do this exercise.”
  4. Mary told her father, “I’ll be late tonight.”
  5. Jim said “I gave her this book two days ago.”

Правильные ответы:

  1. Dave said he had been playing tennis from 3 to 5p.m. the day before.
  2. He told us his mother had called that day.
  3. She said Ken didn’t want to do this exercise.
  4. Mary told her father she would be late that night.
  5. Jim said that he had given her that book two days before.

 

Reporting verbs

Существуют еще глаголы сообщения, которые можно использовать вместо say и tell.

Однако с ними нужно быть внимательными при переходе из прямой речи в косвенную, так как эти глаголы влияют на структуру предложения, которое за ним следует.

Вот несколько структур.

Примечание

После некоторых глаголов можно использовать разные структуры.

Глагол сообщение + (союз that) придаточное предложение

(используем правило согласования времен)

Verb (that) clause. (This is the same as with the verb SAY)

She said, “I will marry you.”

She agreed that she would marry him.

John said, “I will see him on Sunday.”

John decided that he would meet him on Sunday.

The teacher said: “This is the rule of Sequence of tenses.”

The teacher explained that was the rule of Sequence of tenses.

David said, “I will take you to the station.”

David promised that he would take me to the station.

Следующая структура отличается! Здесь вам не понадобится правило согласования времен, так как после глагола сообщения нужно использовать ИНФИНИТИВ.

Примечание

После некоторых глаголов можно использовать разные структуры.

Глагол сообщение + инфинитив глагола из предложения прямой речи.

Verb + to infinitive

She said, “I will marry you.”

She agreed to marry him.

John said, “I will see him on Sunday.”

John decided to see him on Sunday.

David said, “I will take you to the station.”

David promised to take me to the station.

Camilla said, “Let’s go to the cinema.”

Camilla offered to go to the cinema.

He said, “I do not want to go with you.”

He refused to go with me.

Вы познакомитесь с еще несколькими структурами, изучая приказы и просьбы в косвенной речи.

 

Упражнение

Перепишите предложение в косвенной речи, заполняя пропуски глаголами из таблицы.

promise decide explain agree offer refuse

1. “I promise I'll take you to Prague,” said Mary.

Mary _________ to take me to Prague.

2. “I am not going to do it,” she said.

She _______ to do it.

3. “Would you like some tea,” she said.

 She _______ to have a cup of tea.

4. Chris said, “Yes, it was a great film.”
Chris ________that the film had been great.

5. Angela said, “I will be an architect.”

Angela _____ that she would be an architect.

6. Tom said: “I am late because I missed the bus.”

Tom _______that he was late because he had missed the bus.

Правильные ответы:

1. “I promise I'll take you to Prague,” said Mary.

 Mary promised to take me to Prague. / Mary promised that she would take me to Prague.

2. “I am not going to do it,” she said.

She refused to do it.

3. “Would you like some tea,” she said.

 She offered to have a cup of tea.

4. Chris: Yes, it was a great film.
Chris agreed that the film had been great.

5. Angela said, “I will be an architect.”

Angela decided (that) she would be an architect. / Angela decided to be an architect.

6. Tom said: “I am late because I missed the bus.”

Tom explained that he was late because he had missed the bus.

 

Прощание

Список литературы

  1. Афанасьева О.В., Михеева И.В. Английский язык 8 класс. – М.: Дрофа, 2007.
  2. Биболетова М.З., Трубанева Н.Н. Английский язык 7 класс. – Титул, 2012.
  3. Голицынский Ю. Грамматика Сборник упражнений (издание 6). – Каро, 2007.
  4. К.И. Кауфман, М.Ю. Кауфман. Английский язык: Счастливый английский.ру/ Happy English.ru: 7/8 класс. – Титул, 2012.
  5. Кузовлев В.П., Лапа Н.М., Перегудова Э.Ш. и др. Английский язык, 8 класс. – М.: Просвещение, 2009.

 

  Дополнительные рекомендованные ссылки на ресурсы сети Интернет

  1. Eslbase.com (Источник).
  2. Eltbase.com (Источник).
  3. Eslbase.com (Источник).

 

Домашнее задание

Вставьте say или tell в предложения:

  1. Anthony_____ that he was hungry.
  2. Tara_____ me that you were ill.
  3. He______ everybody that he is French.
  4. The doctor _______ her: “Lie on the couch.”
  5. She ______, “That's a great idea!”

Перепишите предложение в косвенной речи, используя глаголы из таблицы как глаголы сообщения.

told refused offered promised agreed

  1. She said: “I won’t give you any money.”
  2. He said: “I will the washing up.”
  3. We said to them: “We were happy to see you.”
  4. I said: “Will you have a cup of coffee?”
  5. He said: “I’ll bring this book to you tomorrow.”